The late Senator Daniel Inouye, Chairman of the Appropriations Committee and President Pro Tempore (third in the line of succession to the presidency) was the most effective architect-ever of mutually-beneficial US-Israel strategic cooperation. He was a tenacious defender of the US Constitution and the role of the legislature as a co-determining, co-equal branch of government; a humble American patriot and a realist who rejected wishful-thinking in the interest of advancing US national security.
In 1990, while most foreign policy and national security mavens were under the spell of the “Peace Dividends” mirage – following the dismantling of the USSR – Senator Inouye, then the Chairman of the Appropriations Subcommittee on Defense alarmed Capitol Hill about the smothering Iraqi and Iranian “sandstorms,” threatening US economic and national security interests.
Thus, while lowering the US military profile in the post-Cold War Europe, Senator Inouye initiated a series of amendments, leveraging Israel’s unique capabilities, enhancing the win-win US-Israel cooperation in the face of mutual challenges in the Middle East and beyond (e.g., counter- terrorism, missile defense, military intelligence, battle tactics, industrial research and development).
Inouye initiated a significant transfer of US military systems from pacified Europe to Israel, due to Israel’s geographic location, which is most critical to vital US economic and national security interests. This enhanced the US-Israel posture of deterrence in the Middle East, reassuring pro-US Arab allies such as Jordan and Saudi Arabia, and deterring anti-US rogue regimes such as Libya, Syria, Iraq and Iran. Inouye was, also, responsible for expanding pre-positioned ammunition and medical supplies, in Israel, for American use during Middle East emergencies.
Inouye’s amendments were signed into law, in defiance of President Bush and Secretary Baker, who were on the verge of cutting off their noses to spite their faces, by holding the win-win bilateral cooperation initiatives hostage to their opposition to Israel’s settlements policy.
For example, Bush and Baker opposed Inouye’s amendment to upgrade the facilities of the Israeli ports of Haifa and Ashdod in the crucial eastern flank of the Mediterranean, for the benefit of the Sixth Fleet. During one of the exchanges with the Secretary of the Navy, Senator Inouye stated: “Under the US Constitution, Congress possesses the oversight authority, and as the Chairman of the Defense Subcommittee I’ve concluded that the Sixth Fleet would benefit from the upgrade.” The port of Haifa was upgraded and became the most favorite port for Sixth Fleet repairs, maintenance, training and recreation.
Upon learning that Secretary Baker did not implement an amendment, which stipulated an expansion of US-Israel counter-terrorism cooperation, Inouye sent a letter threatening to “fence” part of the counter-terrorism budget. Implementation was underway by the following day!
AIPAC officials were concerned about the Bush/Baker opposition to the Inouye amendments. They suggested that “the legislative pipe may not bear such a huge traffic.” Inouye quipped back: “I am the Chairman and I know that the pipe can bear such traffic.”
Inouye was aware – more than most legislators and observers of Congress – that the US Constitution provides Congress with the power to both directly shape foreign and national security policy, and to constrain presidential actions.
In 2001, Inouye briefed Dr Uzi Landau, then Israel’s Minister for Homeland Security, on Israel’s unique contributions to the national security of the US, Inouye: “The scope of intelligence received by the US, from Israel, exceeds the scope of intelligence received from all NATO countries combined.” He then contended that the Soviet military hardware (e.g., the P-12 Soviet radar, the Mig-21 and Mig-23 Soviet fighter aircrafts) – captured by Israel and transferred to the US – tilted the global balance of power in favor of the USA and amounted to a mega-billion dollar bonus to the US defense industries.
Jointly with Senator Bob Kasten (WI-R) – who co-led each of the above amendments and in defiance of Bush/Baker – Inouye introduced the 1992 legislation to extend $10BN loan guarantees to Israel, and the 1987 legislation to allow Israel to refinance its exceptionally high-interest loans, which saved Israel some $2BN over 20 years.
In 1993, Inouye expressed his concern about the potentially devastating consequences of the Oslo Accord. He participated in the White House ceremony because “I could not disappoint my good friend, Prime Minister Rabin.” Once again, Inouye demonstrated his ability to vanquish wishful-thinking, in defiance of political and social pressure.
During our last personal meeting, at his office, Inouye asked: “Are you aware of Daniel Inouye-like legislators, who will carry the torch when I am gone?!” In the words of Bruce Springsteen, “When they built you, brother Daniel, they turned dust into gold; when they built you, brother Daniel, they broke the mold!”